DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS AND INNOVATIVE PROJECTS FOUNDATION (FUND CNT)

"Transition to Hydrogen Energy is the main Key
to the Triumph of all Humanity"

EFFICIENCY OF CNT© TECHNOLOGY

The mass calorific value of hydrogen (120 MJ/kg) is the highest among traditional chemical fuels:  Natural gas  (48,5 MJ/kg), gasoline (45,5 MJ/kg), diesel fuel (42,6 MJ/kg), coal (29,4 MJ/kg). However, if we compare the same types of fuel by volume calorific value, then hydrogen under n.c. will have the lowest energy release value of 10,7 MJ/m3. This is due to the low hydrogen density ( ρ = 0,08987 g/l under n.c. ). The only effective way to increase the volumetric energy output of hydrogen is by multiple pressure amplification of the stored gas! Pressure increase leads to the increase of the stored gas (hydrogen) density. Consequently, the requirements (security, reliability, and availability) for the hydrogen storage/transportation* systems under development will be higher than the existing ones.

 * Just because efficient, safe and affordable storage/transportation systems are missing,  the use of hydrogen as a fuel has not been widespread globally!

Mass calorific value of chemical fuels at standard level, (MJ/kg)

1. Hydrogen

120 MJ/kg

100%
2. Natural gas
40.41%
3. Gasoline
37.91%
4. Diesel fuel
35.5%
5. Coal
24.5%

Volumetric calorific value of chemical fuels at standard level, (MJ/m3)

1. Coal

38220 MJ/m3

3. Diesel fuel
95.8%
4. Gasoline
84.5%
2. Natural gas
0.1%
5. Hydrogen
0.03%

Efficiency of CNT© Technology with increasing working pressure from 700 bar to 1000 bar on the example of TOYOTA MIRAI

STANDARD EQUIPMENT

(P=700bar)

0 kg
Stored hydrogen mass
0 kg
Hydrogen storage system weight
0 km
Power reserve (EPA)
Pressure boosting efficiency

WITH CNT© TECHNOLOGY

(P=1000bar)

0 kg
Stored hydrogen mass
0 kg
Hydrogen storage system weight
0 km
Power reserve (EPA)

Efficiency of CNT© Technology in comparison with Li-ion batteries

As an illustrative example, our comparison is based on the battery from the Tesla Model S electric car. The geometric dimensions of the compared batteries are the same

Tesla model S battery (85kWh, 400V)

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Battery weight = 540 kg

Energy intensity = 85kWh

Specific energy consumption ≈ 0,157 kWh/kg

Charge time ≈ 4-32 hours

Cost > 24000$

Life time ≈ 1 year (Without loss of energy intensity)

Dependence of power reserve Tesla Model S on temperature

t = +20 0С ( 426 km) 100%
t = -20 0С (180 km) 42.2%
t = -26 0С (160 km) 37.5%
CNT© accumulator

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Accumulator weight ≈ 92 kg

Energy intensity ≈ 624 kWh

Specific energy consumption ≈ 5,67 kWh/kg

Charge time ≈ 1-2 minutes

Cost ≈ 9700-11300 $

Life time≈ 10 years (Without loss of energy intensity)

Dependence of power reserve Tesla Model S on temperature

t = +60 до -80 0С ( 3000 km) 100%

Multiple increase of electric vehicles drive range leads to significant cost reduction for the development of the unified hydrogen infrastructure (a network of filling and maintenance stations, etc.).

Efficiency of CNT© Technology for various high-and ultra-high-pressure gas transport systems

In a rapidly developing world, existing gas transportation technologies are inefficient and do not meet the modern requirements of the ever-growing energy demand. At the same time, the construction of gas pipelines requires huge financial costs ($1-7 million per 1 km), time expenditure (more than 2 years), and human resources (thousands of people from a number of different areas of heavy industry, energy, transport and logistics infrastructure, etc.are involved in the implementation of gas pipeline projects).

The implemented “Nord Stream” gas pipeline project will serve as an illustrative example for comparison.

External view of the Nord Stream pipe (L = 12m, mass = 24t)
0 mm
Pipe working diameter
0 MPa
Operating pressure
0 nm
Roughness of the inner surface of the pipe
0 bill. m³ per year
Gas pipeline performance
1 *106 tons
Weight of all Nord Stream pipes
100 km per year
Gas pipeline laying speed
0 billion $
Cost of the Nord Stream project
3D Model of CNT© Pipe
0 mm
Pipe working diameter
> 0 MPa
Operating pressure
< 0 nm
Roughness of capillaries
> 0 bill.m³ per year
Performance CNT pipeline
200 *103 tons
Mass of CNT Pipeline ( L=1224 km )
5000 km per year
Laying speed of CNT pipeline
0 billion $
Cost of the CNT gas pipeline 1224 km long

Construction of a CNT gas pipeline does not involve linear booster compressor stations every 90-150 km of the pipeline to compensate for gas pressure losses in the previous section.  Another major advantage is the capability to produce and install gas pipelines directly on board a ship or vehicle, which increases the speed of laying tenfold.

Efficiency of CNT© Technology for transporting various gases by trailers

An illustrative example of the effectiveness of CNT is based on the comparison of a trailer (TITAN™ T5M) for transporting compressed gases (Hydrogen (CHG), natural gas (CNG)), produced by Hexagon Lincoln Ind.

STANDARD EQUIPMENT

(V=44000l ; P=250bar)

0 kg
Stored hydrogen mass
0 kg
Stored natural gas mass
0 kg
Storage system weight
0 % mass
Hydrogen efficiency of the system
> 0 $
Storage system cost per 1 kg H2

Note: The loss of hydrogen due to diffusing through the walls of the cylinders varies from 3 to 5% per day. Therefore, this fact significantly limits the efficient distance of hydrogen and other gases delivery.

CNT technology does not have this drawback, so hydrogen can be transported over any possible distance!!!

Pressure boosting efficiency

WITH CNT TECHNOLOGY

(V=44000l; P=1000bar)

0 kg
Stored hydrogen mass
0 kg
Stored natural gas mass
0 kg
Storage system weight
0 % mass
Hydrogen efficiency of the system
0 $
Storage system cost per 1 kg H2

Note: CNT Technology provides 100% explosion safety due to the polycapillary structure of storage systems. Hundreds of millions of capillaries of this structure are independent microballoons, and when damaged, the stored gas is released over time, which effectively prevents the formation of an explosion (hydrogen, methane, etc.).

Effectiveness of CNT© Technology proven by the example of marine gas carriers

As a clear example of the effectiveness of CNT©, an LNG tanker of the Q-Max class, Mozah, is used as a basis for comparison. CNT© Technology allows you to multiply the efficiency of compressed natural gas (CNG) storage systems in comparison with natural gas liquefaction (LNG) technologies.

MEMBRANE-TYPE LNG STORAGE SYSTEM

(t = -162 0С)

0 tons
Stored LNG weight
0 %
LNG evaporation losses per day
0 %
Energy costs for liquefaction from the total volume of stored LNG
> 0 millions.$
LNG storage system cost
Pressure boosting efficiency

CNG STORAGE SYSTEM WITH CNT© TECHNOLOGY

(t =environment; P = 1000bar)

0 tons
Stored CNG weight
0 %
Losses of CNG for diffusion
< 0 %
Energy consumption for compression from CNG volume
0 millions.$
CNG storage system cost

Note: CNT© Technology for CNG tankers makes it economically feasible to transport natural gas over a distance of 500 km!!!