DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENTS AND INNOVATIVE PROJECTS FOUNDATION (FUND CNT)

"Transition to Hydrogen Energy is the main Key
to the Triumph of all Humanity"

STORAGE & TRANSPORTATION OF HYDROGEN

   One of the most important problems in the development of Hydrogen Energy is the lack of efficient, safe, accessible systems for storage and transportation of Hydrogen. The existing hydrogen storage systems are inferior to other energy carriers * in terms of cost, volume-weight indicators of energy intensity, service infrastructure, etc. At the same time, one more serious limitation of the development of Hydrogen Energy is higher safety requirements.

* – hydrocarbon energy sources (gasoline, diesel, etc.) and electric energy storage technologies Li-ion, LiPo, etc.

FEATURES OF HYDROGEN ENERGY CAPACITY

   The mass calorific value of Hydrogen (120 MJ/kg) is the highest among traditional chemical fuels:

  • natural gas (48.5 MJ/kg);
  • gasoline (45.5 MJ/kg);
  • diesel fuel (42.6 MJ/kg);
  • coal (29.4 MJ/kg).

  However, if we compare the same types of fuel in terms of volumetric calorific value, then Hydrogen (under normal conditions) will have the lowest energy release of 10.7 MJ/m3.

Mass calorific value of chemical fuels under normal conditions, (MJ/kg)

1. Hydrogen

120 MJ/kg

100%
2. Natural gas
40.41%
3. Gasoline
37.91%
4. Diesel fuel
35.5%
5. Coal
24.5%

The volumetric calorific value of chemical fuels under normal conditions, (MJ/m3)

1. Coal

38220 MJ/m3

100%
2. Diesel fuel
95.8%
3. Gasoline
84.5%
4. Natural gas
0.1%
5. Hydrogen
0.03%

Cryogenic or compressed storage of HYDROGEN

   Low density = 0.08987 g / l (under normal conditions) imposes serious restrictions on the distribution of Hydrogen in the World as a source of environmentally friendly energy. Currently, there are several ways to increase the density of stored Hydrogen. The most widespread methods are cryogenic – at ultralow temperatures (T = 20K, ρ = 70.8 g / l), and compressed storage of Hydrogen at high pressures (P = 70 MPa, ρ = 39.42 g / l). Despite the obvious higher density of liquid Hydrogen than compressed*, still compressed storage has a higher potential for the development of specific energy intensity.

* – We are talking about compressed Hydrogen up to a working pressure of 70 MPa, used in modern composite cylinders (Type IV)

Cryogenic or compressed storage of HYDROGEN

   World manufacturers of composite cylinders could not find technical solutions to increase the hydrogen content (% mass *). Today this indicator for the most modern composite cylinders (Type IV) does not exceed 6.5-7% of the mass. Their further modernization – the thickening of the walls of the cylinders, the search for new materials did not lead to a significant improvement in these indicators. Therefore, the situation is ripe for fundamentally new solutions in the field of hydrogen accumulation. Such a solution can be the microballoon principle of hydrogen storage (MPH), discovered back in the days of the USSR in the 60s of the last century, by a group of Soviet scientists headed by the Nobel Laureate, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Russian Academy of Sciences – Nikolay G. Basov.


* – The ratio of the mass of stored Hydrogen to the mass of the storage system.

Note:
Liquid Hydrogen (ρ = 70.8 g/l at T = 20K) is equivalent to gaseous compressed hydrogen up to 170 MPa

Interesting fact! At this pressure the density of gaseous hydrogen (72.2 g/l at 2000 bar) is higher than the density of liquid hydrogen (70.8 g/l at t = -253C). At the same time nanocapillary hydrogen accumulators do not require cryogenic systems and this in turn saves about 30% of the stored hydrogen energy.

2. Essential difference of nanocapillary hydrogen accumulators from other storage systems is the ability of long-term hydrogen storage at high density without evaporation losses. For example, for standard storage systems, on average, losses of this kind per day are from 1 to 3% (of the hydrogen content).
At the same time, the absence of evaporation losses makes nanocapillary hydrogen accumulators the safest, and can safely be used everywhere – without fear of hydrogen accumulation.

3. The unique structure of the nanocapillary hydrogen accumulator makes it one of the safest ways of storing and transporting hydrogen. The principle of partitioning into microvolumes (capillaries) excludes the instantaneous flame propagation in volume. For example, in the event of damage to the integrity of the structure, a gradual (time-extended) flow of hydrogen from the bundle of damaged capillaries occurs. Therefore, these storage systems are more explosion-proof than standard high-pressure cylinders. 

4. The minimum cost of production of nanocapillary hydrogen accumulators CNT© among the world manufacturers of high-pressure cylinders.

Cost of storage of 1 kg of hydrogen

World manufacturers of cylinders (Hexagon Linc, Quantum, SA DFMA, 3M, etc.)

> 330 $

Comparison of the cost of storage systems for 1 kg H 2

UNIQUE FEATURES OF CNT ACCUMULATOR

1. Materials of construction

It is primarily composite carbon and polymer materials. So, for example, manufactured on the basis of poly-p-phenylene terephthalamide and other similar polymers (Armos, SVM, tarlon, russar, Kevlar) have a density of ρ 5.5 times less than that of steel, strength characteristics are 5.6-10 times higher. For various structural chromium-nickel steels, the tensile strength can reach values of 550 MPa, for aramids the tensile strength reaches σlimit = 5500 MPa.

 

Material ρ, gr/cm3 σ limit, MPa
Chrome-nickel steel 7,8 550
Polyamide 1,4 80
Armos 1,45 5500
SVM 1,45 4200
Terlon 1,45 3100
Quartz 2,65 >7500
Glass with MgO 2,3 4200
Matrix of capillaries (D = 100 microns)

2. Ideal structure of capillaries at the micro level

Extraction of capillaries increases their strength properties due to shell thinning and, thus, reduces the internal structure of the material defects. Hence almost the ideal structure of capillaries.

Chrome-nickel steel
Capillaries CNT©

3. Spool winding structure of capillaries

The unique structure of the accumulator allows storing various gases (hydrogen, helium, methane, etc.) at pressures of more than 2500 bar. This is achieved by dividing the entire geometric volume of the storage system into microvolumes. Thus, we obtain a single strong cellular frame capable of withstanding forces (from gas molecules) on the walls of capillaries at ultrahigh pressures (above 2500 bar).

TECHNOLOGY READINESS LEVEL

In accordance with the development technology, a hydrogen battery contains the following components:

Capillary matrix

  • Created production technology for various types of capillary matrix.
  • Tests of the capillary matrix proves the creation of a capillary matrix with a pressure of up to 2000 atm.
  • A program was developed for calculating the gas content in the capillary matrix.

Gas filling system

  • Developed methods of connecting filling system with a capillary matrix.
  • Realized connection of the filling system with the capillary matrix.
  • Implemented experimental systems for filling capillary matrices with pressures up to 2000 atm.

Gas extraction system

  • Principles of extraction and reduction of high-pressure gas.
  • Realized reduction and extraction of hydrogen from a capillary matrix with a diameter of several millimeters.
  • Developed technology of hydrogen reduction from 1000-2000 atm.

 

 

The appearance of the CNT© hydrogen accumulator

THE MOST SECURE HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM IN THE WORLD TODAY

1

The unique structure of the nanocapillary hydrogen accumulator makes it one of the safest ways of storing and transporting hydrogen.

The principle of decomposition into microvolumes (capillaries) excludes the instantaneous spread of the flame in the volume. For example, in the event of damage to the integrity of the structure, a gradual (time-extended) flow of hydrogen from the bundle of damaged capillaries occurs. Therefore, these storage systems are more explosion-proof than standard high-pressure cylinders.

!!! Note: Existing cylinders types are explosive, this is due to the release of a large volume of gas when it is destroyed.